Have you ever wondered how effective learning happens? You can create training and learning that works by using a sound instructional design framework. The most used is the ADDIE model. Read on to learn about the ADDIE process.
The ADDIE Model of Instructional Design
The ADDIE model is an instructional design system to develop course material or training programs following logical steps or phases. It’s popularity is due to its flexibility and ease of use.
It grew from a model developed by the instructional designers of the Florida State University Center for Educational Technology back in the 1970s for the US Army, which was based on a 1965 model from the US Air Force.
In the ADDIE process, each phase has a specific outcome. This outcome is necessary to move into the next step. There are five phases: the analysis phase, design phase, development phase, implementation phase, and evaluation phase. If you haven’t noticed, ADDIE is just an acronym for analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation! Now, let’s look at these phases one by one.
1. Analysis Phase
This first step is the foundation of the ADDIE process. In this phase, you establish the instructional problems, the instructional goals, and learning objectives or learning outcomes. You must identify the learner’s existing knowledge and the learning environment conducive to the training program.
The activity to help you here is the training needs analysis. Make sure to involve key stakeholders to have a sufficient picture of the current performance realities and requirements.
Training developers can also do a backward planning method to identify the deliverables from this phase. Your goal must be beyond the intended behavioral outcomes. Being with the end in mind by looking at the learning process that contains these elements:
- Result – What impact or outcome will improve the business?
- Performance – What do the employees have to do to create the desired impact?
- Learning – What knowledge, skills, and resources do they need in order to perform?
- Motivation – What do they need to perceive in order to learn and perform?
2. Design Phase
The design phase deals with providing the blueprint of the learning process, based on what was identified during the analysis phase. This blueprint involves the learning objectives, lesson planning, assessment instruments, instructional strategies, media selection, and subject matter analysis. If technology is involved, establish the user interface to make it easier for learners.
Since you develop your output here, be specific and systematic for accurate formulation. Systematic means that there is a logical connection between the elements you will choose for the course or program. Specific means you pay attention to the necessary details and elements. They should also align with sound instructional theories.
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3. Development Phase
If the design phase deals with a blueprint, the development phase is about creating the necessary content. Instructional designers will develop the learning activities and content assets into a complete learning environment. The end result is the learning platform.
The development phase also includes developing storyboards, where you put together the flow and the relevant content and media. If e-learning is involved, programmers need to integrate the necessary educational technology. You can employ rapid prototyping to check whether the designed activities are aligned with the identified instructional goals.
4. Implementation Phase
The implementation phase is where the learning activities, products, services, and training are delivered to the learners. This might sound easy compared to the initial phases, but that’s a common error. A poor facilitator can ruin a good instructional design, your planned strategies, or a well-designed course curriculum.
During the implementation stage, you must also conduct facilitators’ training. This training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, methods of delivery, and testing procedures.
5. Evaluation Phase
The evaluation phase is a systematic way to determine whether learning was achieved using evaluation tools. This is the final phase in the ADDIE process, but it plays a part at all stages.
Your objectives for evaluation are to assess if:
- The learning outcomes are identified in the Analysis Phase
- The blueprint in the Design Phase is relevant to achieving the goals
- The learning activities, content, and media developed in the Development Phase are aligned with the blueprints
- The learning facilitation and implementation are appropriate.
The evaluation phase consists of two parts. The first is formative evaluation, which aims to identify the learning constraints as you go through the process and address them. Developers create testing procedures that provide guidance to the learners at key points during the learning program.
The other is summative evaluation, which assesses the overall performance at the end. This is reflected if you provide effective training. Examples of summative evaluation are tests or final projects. You may also gather the learners’ feedback, as a way to examine your program’s effectiveness.
Advantages of the ADDIE Model
A criticism of the ADDIE model is that it is considered a linear process compared to more rapid instructional design models. But this is if the instructional design process is followed in a rigid manner.
The ADDIE process is dynamic. It is not implemented in a linear or waterfall since evaluations are performed throughout the process. Designers create or iterate the activities that correct flaws found in the evaluations.
The five phases are modified to better suit your goals and needs. Instructional designers can use one phase to inform another and choose which tasks to carry out under each phase. For example, you can return to the Analysis phase even during the Development phase, to make sure every element is aligned.
You can use the ADDIE model with other models, including the rapid application development (RAD) model. The five phases provide a framework or guide to make sure the process is done in a logical manner.
Weaknesses of the ADDIE Model
As with any model, ADDIE has its weaknesses:
- Instructional designers are prone to use it in a linear way.
- The planning phase for ADDIE needs intricate detailing.
- The process is time-consuming.
But you can overcome these weaknesses if you are clear with your goals.
Like any framework, ADDIE has its advantages and weaknesses. You can provide effective instruction for your target audience if you use the ADDIE model in a dynamic, flexible, and adaptable way.
If you need help, feel free to contact us. We look forward to joining you in developing your own courses.
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